New Zealand Economy

Over the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes - but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder - and broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector.

Per capita income has risen for eight consecutive years and reached $27,300 in 2007 in purchasing power parity terms. Consumer and government spending have driven growth in recent years, and exports picked up in 2006 after struggling for several years.

Exports were equal to about 22% of GDP in 2007, down from 33% of GDP in 2001. Thus far the economy has been resilient, and the Labor Government promises that expenditures on health, education, and pensions will increase proportionately to output. Inflationary pressures have built in recent years and the central bank raised its key rate 13 times since January 2004 to finish 2007 at 8.25%. A large balance of payments deficit poses another challenge in managing the economy.

Population: 4,173,460 (July 2008 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity): $112.4 billion (2007 est.) (official exchange rate): $128.1 billion (2007 est.)
real growth rate: 3.1% (2007 est.)
per capita (PPP): $27,200 (2007 est.)
composition by sector: Agriculture: 4.5%, Industry: 26.2%, Services: 69.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force: 2.236 million (2007 est.)
By occupation: Agriculture: 7%, Industry: 19%, Services: 74% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.6% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 23.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget: Revenues: $58.31 billion, Expenditures: $53.5 billion (2007 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March Note: this is the fiscal year for tax purposes
Public debt: 20.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2007 est.)
Agriculture products: Dairy products, lamb and mutton; wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables, wool, beef, fish
Industries: Food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2007 est.)
Electricity production: 42.06 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Consumption: 37.39 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Oil Production: 25,880 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Consumption: 156,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Exports: 15,720 bbl/day (2004)
Imports: 140,900 bbl/day (2004)
Proved reserves: 55.5 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas production: 3.9 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas consumption: 3.7 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves: 29.67 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance: -$10.23 billion (2007 est.)
Exports: $27.35 billion (2007 est.)
Commodities: Dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery
Partners: Australia 22%, US 11.5%, Japan 9.2%, China 5.3%, UK 4.6% (2007)
Imports: $29.06 billion (2007 est.)
Commodities: Machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics
Partners: Australia 20.7%, China 13.4%, US 9.7%, Japan 9.5%, Singapore 4.9%, Germany 4.7% (2007)
Economic aid donor: ODA, $259 million (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $17.25 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt external: $51.44 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home: $71.31 billion (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $40.62 billion (2005)
Currency (code): New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 1.3811 (2007), 1.5408 (2006), 1.4203 (2005), 1.5087 (2004), 1.7221 (2003)
Read more on the CIA World Factbook


뉴질랜드의 경제 현황
지난 20년간 정부는 뉴질랜드를, 농경 중심의 경제와 영국 중심의 시장 체제에서 더 산업화된, 세계적으로 경쟁할 수 있는 자유통상 체제로 변화시켜 왔습니다. 이러한 급격한 성장은 산업 기술력을 심화시켰고, 평균소득을 증가시킨 반면 소득의 양극화를 초래하기도 하였습니다.

1인당 국민소득은 8년 연속 증가하였으며 2007년에는 구매력 증가 기준, $27,300가 되었습니다. 소비자와 정부 지출은 최근 몇 년 간 성장을 주도해 왔으며 몇 년간의 어려움 끝에 2006년 수출이 성장세로 돌아섰습니다.

2001년 GDP의 33%를 차지하던 수출은 2007년 GDP의 22%까지 떨어졌습니다. 이후 경제는 활기를 찾았으며, 노동부는 의료, 교육, 연금에 대한 지출을 이에 맞추어 증가시킬 것을 공표하였습니다. 인플레이션 우려는 지난 몇 년간 커져 왔으며, 중앙은행은 2004년부터 2007년까지 기본 금리를 13회나 인상해 현재 금리는 8.25%입니다.

크게 증가한 국제수지 역시 경제를 관리해 나가는데 있어 또 다른 과제입니다.


인구: 4,173,460 (2008년 7월 기준)
GDP (구매력 증가 기준): $1124억(2007 est.), (공정환율 기준): $1281억 (2007 est.)
실질 성장률: 3.1% (2007 est.)
1인당 국민소득 (PPP): $27,200 (2007 est.)
주요 산업 구성: 농수산업: 4.5%, 산업: 26.2%, 서비스업: 69.3% (2007 est.)
노동력: 2,236,000명 (2007 est.)
주요 직업 구성: 농수산업: 7%, 산업: 19%, 서비스업: 74% (2006 est.)
실업률: 3.6% (2007 est.)
투자 유치금 (총 고정자산 기준): 23.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
정부예산: 매출: $583.1억, 지출: $535억 (2007 est.)
회계연도: 4월 1일부터 다음해 3월 31일까지. 징세를 위한 회계연도
국가 부채: 20.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
물가 증가율 (소비가격): 2.4% (2007 est.)
농수산업: 유제품, 양고기, 밀, 보리, 감자, 콩, 과일, 야채, 양털, 소고기, 생선 산업: 식품 가공, 목공, 제지, 기계, 운송기계, 은행, 보험, 관광, 채광
산업생산 성장율: 1.5% (2007 est.)
전력 생산량: 420.6억 kWh (2006 est.)
전력 소비량: 373.9억 kWh (2006 est.)
원유 생산량: 25,880 bbl/day (2006 est.)
원유 소비량: 156,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
원유 수출량: 15,720 bbl/day (2004)
원유 수입량: 140,900 bbl/day (2004)
원유 내장량: 5550만 bbl (2006 est.)
천연가스 생산량: 39 억 m3 (2006 est.)
천연가스 소비량: 37 억 m3 (2006 est.)
천연가스 내장량: 296.7 억 m3 (2006 est.)
현재 재정 잔고: -$102.3억 (2007 est.)
수출액: $273.5 억 (2007 est.)
주요 수출품: 유제품, 육류, 목재, 생선, 기계 수요
수출국: 오스트레일리아 22%, 미국 11.5%, 일본 9.2%, 중국 5.3%, 영국 4.6% (2007)
수입액: $290.6 억 (2007 est.)
주요 수입품: 기계 장비, 자동차, 항공기, 정유, 전자기기, 섬유, 플라스틱류
주요 수입국: 오스트레일리아 20.7%, 중국 13.4%, 미국 9.7%, 일본 9.5%, 싱가폴4.9%, 독일 4.7% (2007)
경제 원조액: ODA, $2억5900만 (2006)
외환&금 보유고: $172.5억 (2007/12/31 est.)
외채: $514.4억 (2007/12/1 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment at home: $713.1억(2007 est.)
주가 총액: $406.2억 (2005)
통화 (code): New Zealand dollar (NZD)
환율: 1 미국달러 당 가치 - 1.3811 (2007), 1.5408 (2006), 1.4203 (2005), 1.5087 (2004), 1.7221 (2003)